Rare genetic disorders caused by small changes in a person’s genetic make-up affect fewer than 1 in 2,000 people globally – but they are a major cause of developmental and psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability.
Recent advances in technologies to detect these small changes and data sharing between international research groups have revolutionized identification and diagnosis.
However, more detailed studies are needed to fully characterize their clinical presentation and determine the risk for particular developmental and psychiatric conditions in individuals with these rare genetic changes, such as deletion or duplication of a small fragment on chromosome 22 (22q11.2) or chromosome 16 (16p11.2).
These rare genetic disorders have large impacts, which allow researchers to interrogate the link between biological function and psychiatric symptoms.
The “Genome to Mental Health” (GMH) consortium is a new initiative backed by funding of nearly £4.7m ($6m) from the National Institute of Mental Health and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. It includes researchers from 14 institutions and seven countries from North America, Europe, and Africa.
In the UK, it is led by Professor Marianne van den Bree in the MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics at Cardiff University.
The consortium is structured around four projects that will study the behavioral and cognitive symptoms in individuals with rare genetic changes that confer high risk for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. Participants will be identified in hospital clinics as well as in the general population across three continents.
The research aims to fill a critical knowledge gap. Most rare variants have been studied in isolation. As a result, essential information is sprinkled across many small studies that are difficult to compare. To accelerate discovery, the GMH consortium will collate and harmonize genetic data with quantitative measures of cognition and behavior across multiple genetic variants associated with increased risk of developmental and psychiatric outcomes. This coordinated effort across patients, families, researchers, clinicians and institutions, including rapid sharing of data, is required to translate discoveries into therapeutic potential.
It is hoped studies conducted by the GMH consortium will pave the way for subsequent studies focused on improving early detection, initiation of services, prognosis, and support for patients.
In future, the clinical and genetic findings may also contribute to therapeutic targets and outcome measures of clinical trials in patients with rare variants and psychiatric symptoms.
Source: Cardiff University