Related Science News – Page 151 – Innovita Research

Related Science News

August 20, 2019

Biochemists discover new insights into what may go awry in brains of people with Alzheimer's

More than three decades of research on Alzheimer’s disease have not produced any major treatment advances for those with the disorder, according to a UCLA expert who has studied the biochemistry of the brain and Alzheimer’s for nearly 30 years. “Nothing has worked,” said Steven Clarke, a distinguished professor of […]
August 19, 2019

From the tiny testes of flies, new insight into how genes arise

In the battle of the sexes, males appear to have the innovative edge—from a genetic standpoint, at least. Scientists are finding that the testes are more than mere factories for sperm; these organs also serve as hotspots for the emergence of new genes, the raw material for the evolution of […]
August 19, 2019

Moisturizers May Be Turning Your Skin Into ‘Swiss Cheese’

Visit any drugstore and you’ll find a dizzying array of choices for skin-care products. That’s no surprise, says UC San Francisco dermatology professor Peter Elias, MD, since at least half of Americans, maybe more, have sensitive skin or a diagnosed skin condition such as eczema, atopic dermatitis or rosacea. But […]
August 19, 2019

Foraging for information: machine learning decodes genetic influence over behavior

Mice scurry around while foraging for food, but genetics may be the unseen hand controlling these meandering movements. Researchers at University of Utah Health are using machine learning to draw links between genetic controls that shape incremental steps of instinctive and learned behaviors. The results are available online in Cell Reports. “Patterns of […]
August 19, 2019

Stress and resilience: why sex and gender matter

For a guy who studies other people's stress for a living, Robert-Paul Juster certainly seems to handle it well himself. The Université de Montréal neuroscientist is busy on many fronts, researching stress among the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, stress in the workplace, stress and aging, and stress […]
August 19, 2019

Tweaked CRISPR in Neurons Gives Scientists New Power to Probe Brain Diseases

A team of scientists at UC San Francisco and the National Institutes of Health have achieved another CRISPR first, one which may fundamentally alter the way scientists study brain diseases. In a paper published in the journal Neuron, the researchers describe a technique that uses a special version of CRISPR […]
August 19, 2019

Scientists identify faulty molecular recycling as potential driver of Alzheimer’s disease

When a muscle or lung cell gets damaged beyond repair, self-destruct enzymes, known as caspases, spring into action, safely dismantling the cell. But in neurons, which are essentially irreplaceable, one of those enzymes actually helps to recycle old proteins instead of destroying the cell, a process that seems to stall […]
August 16, 2019

New stem cell combination could help to repair damaged hearts

A combination of heart cells derived from human stem cells could be the answer to developing a desperately-needed treatment for heart failure, according to new research by scientists at the University of Cambridge, published in Nature Biotechnology. Researchers have found that, by transplanting an area of damaged tissue with a combination […]
August 16, 2019

Cambridge scientists reverse ageing process in rat brain stem cells

New research reveals how increasing brain stiffness as we age causes brain stem cell dysfunction, and demonstrates new ways to reverse older stem cells to a younger, healthier state. The results, published in Nature, have far-reaching implications for how we understand the ageing process, and how we might develop much-needed […]
August 16, 2019

Joint lubricating fluid plays key role in osteoarthritic pain, study finds

A team at the University of Cambridge has shown how, in osteoarthritis patients, the viscous lubricant that ordinarily allows our joints to move smoothly triggers a pain response from nerve cells similar to that caused by chilli peppers. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes joint pain […]
August 16, 2019

How brain cells pick which connections to keep

Brain cells, or neurons, constantly tinker with their circuit connections, a crucial feature that allows the brain to store and process information. While neurons frequently test out new potential partners through transient contacts, only a fraction of fledging junctions, called synapses, are selected to become permanent. The major criterion for […]
August 16, 2019

Model predicts cognitive decline due to Alzheimer’s, up to two years out

A new model developed at MIT can help predict if patients at risk for Alzheimer’s disease will experience clinically significant cognitive decline due to the disease, by predicting their cognition test scores up to two years in the future. The model could be used to improve the selection of candidate […]
August 16, 2019

A new way to block unwanted genetic transfer

We receive half of our genes from each biological parent, so there’s no avoiding inheriting a blend of characteristics from both. Yet, for single-celled organisms like bacteria that reproduce by splitting into two identical cells, injecting variety into the gene pool isn’t so easy. Random mutations add some diversity, but […]
August 16, 2019

Characterizing tau aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases

The microtubule-binding protein tau in neurons of the central nervous system can misfold into filamentous aggregates under certain conditions. These filaments are found in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and progressive supranuclear palsy. Understanding the molecular structure and dynamics of tau fibrils is important […]
August 16, 2019

‘Trojan horse’ anticancer drug disguises itself as fat

A stealthy new drug-delivery system disguises chemotherapeutics as fat in order to outsmart, penetrate and destroy tumors. Thinking the drugs are tasty fats, tumors invite the drug inside. Once there, the targeted drug activates, immediately suppressing tumor growth. The drug also is lower in toxicity than current chemotherapy drugs, leading […]
August 16, 2019

Genes linked to Alzheimer’s risk, resilience ID’d

An international team of researchers led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified a pair of genes that influence risk for both late-onset and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Most genes implicated thus far in Alzheimer’s affect neurons that transmit messages, allowing different regions of the […]
August 16, 2019

Balance of “Stop” and “Go” Signaling Could Be Key to Cancer Immunotherapy Response

A crucial signaling pathway that can tell the immune system to fight off cancer can also be co-opted by cancer cells to put the brakes on the immune system, according to a new study from researchers in the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania. Researchers say this increased understanding […]
August 16, 2019

Air pollution can accelerate lung disease as much as a pack a day of cigarettes

Air pollution — especially ozone air pollution which is increasing with climate change — accelerates the progression of emphysema of the lung, according to a new study led by the University of Washington, Columbia University and the University at Buffalo. While previous studies have shown a clear connection of air pollutants with […]
August 16, 2019

Mechanism of electrical signaling in cells revealed

Researchers have now obtained the long-sought after, resting-state structure of a voltage-gated sodium channel.  These types of channels in living cells form a voltage-regulated pore that allows rapid passage of positively charged sodium atoms across the cell membrane. This generates a tiny electrical signal. Electrical signals in nerve and muscle […]
August 15, 2019

Tissue model reveals role of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer’s

Beta-amyloid plaques, the protein aggregates that form in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients, disrupt many brain functions and can kill neurons. They can also damage the blood-brain barrier — the normally tight border that prevents harmful molecules in the bloodstream from entering the brain. MIT engineers have now developed a […]
August 14, 2019

Intensive blood pressure control may slow age-related brain damage

In a nationwide study, researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to scan the brains of hundreds of participants in the National Institutes of Health’s Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and found that intensively controlling a person’s blood pressure was more effective at slowing the accumulation of white matter lesions […]
August 14, 2019

Bone strength could be linked to when you reached puberty

Published in JAMA Network Openresearchers looked at six repeated bone scans from 6,389 children in Bristol’s Children of the 90s study between the ages of ten and 25 to assess if the timing of puberty had any influence on bone density throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. They found that […]
August 14, 2019

Researchers investigate how the brain changes with different learning experiences

A new collaboration with an independent school in Menlo Park, Calif., is helping Stanford researchers better understand how different learning experiences drive changes in the brain. The Brainwave Learning Center at Synapse School brings together researchers, teachers and students to gain new insights into how young learners' brains transform as they acquire […]
August 13, 2019

Raised Risk

Scientists studying a highly cancer-prone family have identified a rare, inherited gene mutation that dramatically raises the lifetime risk of pancreatic and other cancers. The discovery of the previously unknown mutation, reported in Nature Genetics by Harvard Medical School investigators at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center, could lead to routine testing of individuals […]
August 13, 2019

Smoldering spots in the brain may signal severe MS

Aided by a high-powered brain scanner and a 3D printer, NIH researchers peered inside the brains of hundreds of multiple sclerosis patients and found that dark rimmed spots representing ongoing, “smoldering” inflammation, called chronic active lesions, may be a hallmark of more aggressive and disabling forms of the disease. “We […]
August 13, 2019

Alzheimer’s Disease Destroys Neurons that Keep Us Awake

Researchers and caregivers have noted that excessive daytime napping can develop long before the memory problems associated with Alzheimer’s disease begin to unfold. Prior studies have considered this excessive daytime napping to be compensation for poor nighttime sleep caused by Alzheimer’s-related disruptions in sleep-promoting brain regions, while others have argued that the […]
August 13, 2019

Bacteria made to mimic cells, form communities

Rice University scientists have found a way to engineer a new kind of cell differentiation in bacteria, inspired by a naturally occurring process in stem cells. They have created a genetic circuit able to produce genetically distinguished cells of Escherichia coli as the bacterium divides. By controlling this process, it is possible […]
August 13, 2019

An alternate theory for what causes Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by plaques and tangles in the brain, with most efforts at finding a cure focused on these abnormal structures. But a University of California, Riverside, research team has identified alternate chemistry that could account for the various […]
August 13, 2019

Depression and Alzheimer’s

Increasingly, Alzheimer’s disease research has focused on the preclinical stage, when people have biological evidence of Alzheimer’s but either no symptoms or minimal symptoms—the time when interventions might have the potential to prevent future decline of older adults. Harvard Medical School researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have shed new light on […]
August 12, 2019

Higher vitamin A intake linked to lower skin cancer risk

People whose diets included high levels of vitamin A had a 17 percent reduction in risk for getting the second-most-common type of skin cancer, as compared to those who ate modest amounts of foods and supplements rich in vitamin A. That’s according to researchers from Brown University, who unearthed that […]