Related Science News

December 3, 2020

Common pipe alloy can form cancer-causing chemical in drinking water

Rusted iron pipes can react with residual disinfectants in drinking water distribution systems to produce carcinogenic hexavalent chromium in drinking water, reports a study by engineers at UC Riverside. Chromium is a metal that occurs naturally in the soil and groundwater. Trace amounts of trivalent chromium eventually appear in the drinking […]
December 2, 2020

AI predicts which drug combinations kill cancer cells

When healthcare professionals treat patients suffering from advanced cancers, they usually need to use a combination of different therapies. In addition to cancer surgery, the patients are often treated with radiation therapy, medication, or both. Medication can be combined, with different drugs acting on different cancer cells. Combinatorial drug therapies […]
December 2, 2020

New School of Medicine study identifies novel mechanisms that cause protein clumping in Alzheimer’s and other degenerative brain diseases

A team of researchers at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine has taken a major step toward understanding the mechanisms involved in the formation of large clumps of tau protein, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders. Their findings may help to better understand the […]
December 2, 2020

Custom-Order Cells

If stem cell science were bread baking, then working with pluripotent stem cells would be like starting with flour, water and yeast. Transforming those base materials into a delicious loaf of bread requires knowing which ingredients to add and how to manipulate the dough and its environment, such as by mixing […]
December 2, 2020

Gene that protects against osteoarthritis identified

In mouse study, loss of molecule contributes to disease while surplus reduces symptoms. Osteoarthritis is one of the most common problems associated with ageing, and although there are therapies to treat the pain that results from the breakdown of the cartilage that cushions joints, there are no available therapies to […]
December 2, 2020

How to spot winning sperm: Examine their racing stripes

Millions of sperm enter the race to fertilize, but only one wins the sprint to the egg. Now Yale researchers have discovered that these winning sperm possess a few key molecular characteristics that differentiate them from those left behind, they report in the journal eLife. Sperm tails are lined with […]
December 2, 2020

New method identifies adaptive mutations in complex evolving populations

A team co-led by a scientist at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a method to study how HIV mutates to escape the immune system in multiple individuals, which could inform HIV vaccine design. HIV, which can lead to AIDS, evolves rapidly and attacks the body’s immune system. Genetic mutations in […]
December 2, 2020

In preventing nuclear collapse in cells, scientists inch closer to a treatment for a set of rare diseases

University of Minnesota researchers have discovered a potential target for the research and development of future therapies to mitigate the symptoms of a series of genetic disorders called laminopathies. Laminopathies cause a wide variety of conditions in humans, from skeletal muscular dystrophy and neuropathy to premature ageing. In a study […]
December 2, 2020

Drug Reverses Age-Related Mental Decline Within Days

Just a few doses of an experimental drug can reverse age-related declines in memory and mental flexibility in mice, according to a new study by UC San Francisco scientists. The drug, called ISRIB, has already been shown in laboratory studies to restore memory function months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), reverse […]
December 2, 2020

Obesity changes cell response to glucose, uses slower metabolic path in mouse liver

Healthy cells and cells with Type 2 diabetes use completely different pathways to manage blood sugar levels, according to results from a study in mice. Researchers used a trans-omic approach, combining data from genes (transcriptomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) to identify and connect the many separate processes involved in responding to […]
December 2, 2020

Scientists Identify Brain Cells That Drive Wakefulness and Resist General Anesthetics

Neuroscientists don’t know precisely what brain circuits control wakefulness and sleep, nor exactly how drugs for general anaesthesia affect those circuits. But a new study from Penn Medicine researchers brings neuroscience a step closer to solving that important conundrum. A team of researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at […]
December 2, 2020

Telomere shortening protects against cancer

As time goes by, the tips of your chromosomes—called telomeres—become shorter. This process has long been viewed as an unwanted side-effect of ageing, but a recent study shows it is in fact good for you. “Telomeres protect the genetic material,” says Titia de Lange, Leon Hess Professor at Rockefeller. “The DNA […]
December 1, 2020

Sensor can detect scarred or fatty liver tissue

About 25 per cent of the U.S. population suffers from fatty liver disease, a condition that can lead to fibrosis of the liver and, eventually, liver failure. Currently, there is no easy way to diagnose either fatty liver disease or liver fibrosis. However, MIT engineers have now developed a diagnostic […]
December 1, 2020

Engineering a viral solution to cancer

While doctors can successfully treat some types of skin cancer at the surface with human-engineered viruses, scientists have yet to find a way to inject these types of viruses to seek and destroy other cancers in the body, such as lung cancer. But medical researchers at Case Western Reserve University […]
December 1, 2020

Potential Cellular Target for Eliminating Bone Breakdown in Osteoporosis Found

New research has discovered a cell type that governs the way bones form and maintains themselves, opening up a potential target for future therapies for bone disorders like osteoporosis. Led by faculty from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, a rodent study showed that bone marrow […]
November 30, 2020

Study Reveals Connection Between Gut Bacteria and Vitamin D Levels

Our gut microbiomes — the many bacteria, viruses and other microbes living in our digestive tracts — play important roles in our health and risk for disease in ways that are only beginning to be recognized. University of California San Diego researchers and collaborators recently demonstrated in older men that […]
November 30, 2020

Cocoa flavanols boost brain oxygenation, cognition in healthy adults

The brains of healthy adults recovered faster from a mild vascular challenge and performed better on complex tests if the participants consumed cocoa flavanols beforehand, researchers reported in the journal Scientific Reports. In the study, 14 of 18 participants saw these improvements after ingesting the flavanols. Previous studies have shown […]
November 30, 2020

Team uses copper to image Alzheimer's aggregates in the brain

A proof-of-concept study conducted in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease offers new evidence that copper isotopes can be used to detect the amyloid-beta protein deposits that form in the brains of people living with – or at risk of developing – Alzheimer’s. Several types of isotopes give off positively […]
November 30, 2020

A by­pass route for the coron­ary ves­sels in the heart?

When the heart develops, some of its coronary blood vessels develop from cells lining the inner surface of the heart’s ventricular chambers (endocardium). Novel findings suggest that new blood vessel growth in the heart can be stimulated with the VEGF-B growth factor from the same source after myocardial infarction to […]
November 30, 2020

Michael Antonov to Match Next $600,000 of Donations to SENS Research Foundation to support Work on Rejuvenation Therapies

Michael Antonov is one of a number of high net worth individuals who are interested in accelerating progress towards a first generation of comprehensive rejuvenation therapies, targeting all of the mechanisms of aging in order to cure age-related disease and extend healthy life spans. The SENS Research Foundation remains one […]
November 30, 2020

Excessive Mitochondrial Point Mutations Do Not Lead to Obvious Metabolic Dysfunction

Every cell contains a herd of hundreds of mitochondria, organelles descended from ancient symbiotic bacteria. The primary purpose of mitochondria is to package the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that is needed to power cellular processes. Each mitochondrion contains one more copies of a small circular genome, the […]
November 30, 2020

World's first research programme to identify scarring gene launched

A world-leading £1.5 million research programme that aims to achieve scar-free healing within a generation has been launched by The Scar Free Foundation, the only medical research charity which focuses solely on scarring. The five-year research study led by the University of Bristol will identify the gene(s) that causes scarring […]
November 30, 2020

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

Shihua Sun has investigated the associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific adverse outcomes including asthma and premature death. In his thesis, Shihua included four studies to clarify the magnitude and aetiology of the associations, as well as potential effects from medication treatment that may prevent poor prognosis. ADHD is […]
November 30, 2020

A Look at the Damage Done by Senescent T Cells in the Aged Immune System

Cells become senescent and cease replication in response to damage, a toxic environment, or reaching the Hayflick limit. Such cells near all self-destruct or are destroyed by the immune system. In later life, however, they begin to linger and accumulate. This is an issue, as the secretions of senescent cells […]
November 30, 2020

Gilberto Fisone receives grant for international collaboration within personalised medicine for neurodegenerative diseases (JPND)

Gilberto Fisone has been awarded a three-year research grant from the Swedish Research Council within the program Novel Imaging and Brain Stimulation Methods and Technologies (JPND) for a project entitled “Phage-based targeted neural stimulation in neurodegenerative diseases”. ”Parkinson’s Disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with major social […]
November 30, 2020

How we learn words and sentences at the same time

How people work out the meanings of new words has been revealed by Lancaster University researchers, who say this is similar to the way in which young children learn the language. The research published in Cognition is by Professor Patrick Rebuschat and Professor Padraic Monaghan, who said: “Have you ever caught yourself […]
November 28, 2020

Study revealing the secret behind a key cellular process refutes biology textbooks

New research has identified and described a cellular process that, despite what textbooks say, has remained elusive to scientists until now – precisely how the copying of genetic material that, once started, is properly turned off. The finding concerns a key process essential to life: the transcription phase of gene […]
November 27, 2020

Gene analysis may increase the effect of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs

In a new study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have studied CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes impact on treatment with antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs. The study shows that control of the patient’s genotype can be used to individualize the drug treatment and lead to a more […]