Related Science News – Page 20 – Innovita Research

Related Science News

March 27, 2019

Novel DNA repair mechanism maintains human genome

University of Tokyo researchers and their collaborators have demonstrated that a special structure that forms when DNA is damaged helps to restore it. Human cells have a mechanism for recognizing this structure, consisting of DNA and RNA, which promotes accurate repair of damaged DNA. The study’s findings point to a […]
March 27, 2019

Model learns how individual amino acids determine protein function

A machine-learning model from MIT researchers computationally breaks down how segments of amino acid chains determine a protein’s function, which could help researchers design and test new proteins for drug development or biological research. Proteins are linear chains of amino acids, connected by peptide bonds, that fold into exceedingly complex […]
March 27, 2019

How tumors behave on acid

Scientists have long known that tumors have many pockets of high acidity, usually found deep within the tumor where little oxygen is available. However, a new study from MIT researchers has found that tumor surfaces are also highly acidic, and that this acidity helps tumors to become more invasive and […]
March 27, 2019

New Study Reshapes Understanding of How the Brain Recovers from Injury

New research, which appeared in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, sheds light on how the damage in the brain caused by a stroke can lead to permanent vision impairment for approximately 265,000 Americans each year. The findings could provide researchers with a blueprint to better identify which areas […]
March 27, 2019

New 3-D printing approach makes cell-scale lattice structures

A new way of making scaffolding for biological cultures could make it possible to grow cells that are highly uniform in shape and size, and potentially with certain functions. The new approach uses an extremely fine-scale form of 3-D printing, using an electric field to draw fibers one-tenth the width […]
March 27, 2019

Prenatal testosterone linked to effects for females who share womb with male twin

Women who shared their mother’s womb with a male twin are less likely to graduate from high school or college, have earned less by their early 30s and have lower fertility and marriage rates when compared with twins who are both female, according to new Northwestern University research. In the […]
March 27, 2019

New oral drug to treat multiple sclerosis approved by FDA

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mayzent (siponimod) tablets to treat adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease. Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation […]
March 26, 2019

Scientists discover how Proteins interact along Metabolic Pathway

Life can depend upon the interaction of two proteins that come together along a metabolic pathway. There, they enable growth by creating fatty acids essential for ensuring that cell membranes form in a protective, fluid environment. While scientists have understood the basic enzymes involved in this fatty-acid biosynthesis, they have […]
March 26, 2019

Balance of Two Enzymes Linked to Pancreatic Cancer Survival

Protein Kinase C (PKC) enzymes are crucial for a number of cellular activities, including cell survival, proliferation and migration — functions that must be carefully controlled lest cells get out of control and form a tumor. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine found that another enzyme, […]
March 26, 2019

Blood cells the missing link in post-exercise boost

A discovery about how exercise improves brain function could be harnessed for research into ageing, and boosting learning and memory. An international team from The University of Queensland and the Dresden University of Technology has identified what triggers the boost to brain function through exercise. Dr Tara Walker from UQ’s Queensland Brain Institutesaid the improvements […]
March 26, 2019

The Brain Grows New Nerve Cells in People up to 87 Years of Age

In a paper recently published in the journal Nature Medicine, a group of researchers from Spain detail their study of the brains of deceased people, indicating that our “neck-tops” are perfectly capable of growing brand new cells well into advanced age. This finding comes as somewhat of a surprise in […]
March 26, 2019

Like racecars and geese, cancer cells draft their way to new tumor sites

NASCAR has nothing on cancer cells when it comes to exploiting the power of drafting, letting someone else do the hard work of moving forward while you coast behind. Building on the relatively new discovery that metastatic cancer cells leave tumors and travel in clusters, not singles, a Vanderbilt University […]
March 26, 2019

Imaging method reveals long-lived patterns in cells of the eye

Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) form unique patterns that can be used to track changes in this important layer of tissue in the back of the eye, researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have found. Using a combination of adaptive optics imaging and a fluorescent dye, the […]
March 26, 2019

Topical immunotherapy keeps skin cancer risk at bay

A combination of two topical creams already shown to clear precancerous skin lesions from sun-damaged skin also lowers the risk that patients will later develop squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The study, from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, appears […]
March 26, 2019

March Madness With a Dose of Sleep Science

When it comes to March Madness, Cathy Goldstein, M.D., M.S., might have an edge over her fellow bracketologists. The neurologist at Michigan Medicine’s Sleep Disorders Centers combines her basketball fandom and sleep science expertise as she makes her selections. Below, she explains how circadian rhythm plays into her picks. What are circadian rhythms? Goldstein: Circadian […]
March 26, 2019

A Protein’s Surprising Role Offers Clues to Limit Graft-vs.-Host Disease

A protein that protects people with inflammatory bowel disease has quite a different effect in graft-vs.-host disease, a common and challenging side effect of bone marrow transplants. In a surprising finding, researchers at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center showed the protein NLRP6 aggravated the difficult symptoms of gastrointestinal graft-vs.-host disease […]
March 26, 2019

New technique could help regrow tissue lost to periodontal disease

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about half of all Americans will have periodontal disease at some point in their lives. Characterized by inflamed gums and bone loss around teeth, the condition can cause bad breath, toothache, tender gums and, in severe cases, tooth loss. Now, […]
March 26, 2019

Sniffing out Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to progressive brain cell death and extensive loss of motor function. Despite much research being conducted on this disease, there are no definitive diagnostic tests currently available. Now, researchers report the identification of compounds that make up the signature odor of the […]
March 26, 2019

How Colon and Rectal Cancer Differ

The terms “colon cancer” and “colorectal cancer” tend to be used interchangeably. But there are important differences between colon and rectal cancers. Less common and potentially more dangerous, rectal cancer calls for special expertise to properly diagnose and treat it. Karin Hardiman, M.D., Ph.D., surgical director of the Rogel Cancer Center’s Multidisciplinary […]
March 25, 2019

NIH study finds no evidence that calcium increases risk of AMD

Eating a calcium-rich diet or taking calcium supplements does not appear to increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to the findings of a study by scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI). AMD is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness among people age 65 and […]
March 25, 2019

Remembrance of Things Past

In research that casts cells as curators of their own history, Harvard Medical School researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have discovered that adult tissues retain a memory, inscribed on their DNA, of the embryonic cells from which they arose. The discovery led to one even more intriguing find—that the memory […]
March 25, 2019

Scientists uncover mysteries of the powerful movement of the human sperm

Sperm is an incredibly good swimmer for its size. It needs quite a bit of strength to break through the cervical mucus barrier. But where does that strength come from? Scientists from the universities of York and Oxford say that the secret is the outer-layer which coats the tails of […]
March 25, 2019

Preserving Fertility in Pediatric Cancer Survivors

One in three childhood cancer survivors is at risk of becoming infertile due to chemotherapy or radiation, and since their sperm or eggs have not matured, assisted reproduction using those sperm or eggs is not an option when they become adults. Now in a major first, researchers at the University of […]
March 25, 2019

Antibodies stabilise plaque in arteries

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have found that type IgG antibodies play an unexpected role in atherosclerosis. A study on mice shows that the antibodies stabilise the plaque that accumulates on the artery walls, which reduces the risk of it rupturing and causing a blood clot. It is hoped that the results, […]
March 25, 2019

Perivascular spaces linked to worse cognition

Enlarged perivascular spaces, which are commonly seen on brain MRIs in older adults, have important associations with worse cognitive performance, particularly information processing speed and executive function, according to a new study that challenges historical consideration that perivascular spaces are a harmless imaging marker. Enlarged perivascular spaces are fluid-filled spaces […]
March 25, 2019

Prenatal allergies prompt sexual changes in offspring

A single allergic reaction during pregnancy prompts sexual-development changes in the brains of offspring that last a lifetime, new research suggests. Female rats born to mothers exposed to an allergen during pregnancy acted more characteristically “male” – mounting other female rodents, for instance – and had brains and nervous systems […]
March 24, 2019

Neutrons paint atomic portrait of prototypical cell signaling enzyme

Direct observations of the structure and catalytic mechanism of a prototypical kinase enzyme—protein kinase A or PKA—will provide researchers and drug developers with significantly enhanced abilities to understand and treat fatal diseases and neurological disorders such as cancer, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. Kinases are a large group of hundreds of […]
March 22, 2019

Eisai's Initiation of Phase III Clinical Trial of BAN2401 in Early Alzheimer's Disease

Eisai Co., Ltd. announced that a global Phase III clinical study (Clarity AD/Study 301) of BAN2401, an anti-amyloid beta protofibril antibody, in patients with early Alzheimer's disease has been initiated. BAN2401 is being jointly developed by Eisai and Biogen Inc. Clarity AD is a global placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized study […]
March 22, 2019

'Tremendous Contributions' for Developmental Biology

Professor Otger Campàs receives 2019 Elizabeth D. Hay New Investigator Award from the Society for Developmental Biology. How do we develop from a mass of undifferentiated cells into organisms of tissues and organs with specific three-dimensional morphologies and architectures? That question has been one of the perennial mysteries at the […]
March 22, 2019

Gene Therapy Shows Initial Promise for Parkinson’s Disease

A delicate operation that involved placing a gene into the brain was found to reduce the severity of motor symptoms in patients with moderately advanced Parkinson’s disease, whose symptoms were no longer controlled by their medications. In a phase I gene therapy trial led by UC San Francisco, 15 patients […]